This website is provided as a public service by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) subject to the following terms and conditions. Your use of the site is subject to these terms – if you do not agree to them, please leave the site.
Disclaimer of liability
In the preparation of this website, every effort has been made to offer the most current, correct, and clearly expressed information possible. Nevertheless, inadvertent errors may occur. In particular, but without limiting anything here, IDS disclaims any responsibility for typographical errors and accuracy of the information that may be contained on IDS web pages. IDS also reserves the right to make changes at any time without notice.
The information and data included on IDS web pages has been compiled from a variety of sources. Unless expressly stated otherwise, opinions given on this website are those of the individuals making them, and not those of IDS or its funders: the Institute and its funders are not responsible for such opinions or any claims resulting from them. Further, IDS makes no warranties or representations whatsoever regarding the quality, content, completeness, or adequacy of such information and data. In any situation where printed publications differ from the text contained in this system, the printed documents take precedence.
Some parts of the website are interactive, and we encourage contributions by users, which may or may not be subject to editorial control prior to being posted on the website. IDS accepts no responsibility or liability for any material communicated by third parties in this way. IDS reserves the right at its sole discretion to remove, review, edit or delete any content at our own discretion.
You must not use any part of the website for any purpose which is illegal, immoral, offensive to others or in breach of others’ rights, or submit any content of that nature. This includes, but is not limited to any content or purpose which is discriminatory or harassing on the grounds of race, gender, religion, age or any other personal attribute, foul language, inciting hatred, sexually explicit, abusive, defamatory, in breach of copyright or other rights and such other activity as IDS may from time to time determine is unacceptable. IDS may remove or block access to any content or communication for any purpose. If you feel that your rights are infringed by anything on this site, please contact [email protected] giving a full description of the offending items and reasons. IDS will investigate and, if it agrees, remove or block such content.
Disclaimer of reliability
While every effort is made to ensure that this website operates reliably, IDS make no representations or warranties regarding the condition or functionality of this website, its suitability for use, or that the service it provides will be uninterrupted or error-free.
Disclaimer of damages
By using this website, you assume all risks associated with its use, including any risk to your computer, software or data being damaged by any virus, software, or any other file which might be transmitted or activated via this website. IDS shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, including, without limitation, lost revenues or lost profits, resulting from the use or misuse of this website or the information contained in this website.
Disclaimer of endorsement
Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by IDS. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of IDS, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.
Links to other websites
Links from this website may take you to other websites that are not controlled by IDS. While such links are provided in good faith, IDS does not approve or endorse the websites to which it has established links in any way. Links are provided for your convenience only and IDS is not responsible for the content or privacy practices of any other website linked to or from the IDS website. Use of any such links will not render IDS liable to you or any other person for loss or liability of any kind.
We have tried to ensure that links to off-site materials are clearly indicated. If we have linked to your material and not clearly indicated that the content is non-IDS, please let us know so that we can resolve the matter by making the link clearer, or removing the link.
IDS holds the copyright to all IDS publications and IDS website content but encourages reproduction of these materials for non-commercial purposes. Proper attribution is requested, stating the original source of the material.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for teaching or not-for-profit use is hereby granted without fee and without a formal request provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that full attribution appears on the first page.
We ask other organisations and media to create links to our publication web pages that offer the download PDF link, rather than storing our PDFs on their own systems. This helps us to track the use of our publications, providing vital information for our publications programme.
If downloading of PDFs is required for purposes of coursework teaching please contact us so that we can also monitor this usage.
Copyright for web content and publications not owned by IDS must be honoured and permission pursued with the copyright holder. Copying in any other circumstances, including but not limited to any commercial use, re-use in commercial publications, or for translation or adaptation, is not permitted without prior written permission from IDS for which a fee may be payable.
To request permission to reprint or republish material from this site, or if you are unclear who is the copyright holder, please contact:
Institute of Development Studies
at the University of Sussex
T: +44 (0)1273 606261
E: [email protected]
Storage and use of personal information
Use of ‘cookies’
We want to ensure that this website is easy to use and reliable. This sometimes involves placing small amounts of information on your computer, including small files known as cookies. These files cannot be used to identify you personally.
These pieces of information are used to improve our services for you by, for example:
- enabling a site to recognise your device so you don’t have to give the same information several times during one task
- recognising that you may already have given a username and password so you don’t need to do it for every web page requested
- measuring how many people are using our sites, so they can be made easier to use and there’s enough capacity to ensure they are fast
How you can control cookies
You can control and/or delete cookies as you wish – for details, see AboutCookies.org. You can delete all the cookies already on your computer and you can set most browsers to block them being placed. But if you do this, you may have to manually adjust some preferences every time you visit the site.
Several cookies are set by our web servers to ensure that your session is maintained for the duration of your visit (until you close your web browser), to help the site remember your settings and preferences (so you don’t have to keep re-entering them whenever you come back to us) and to help us to diagnose and improve the website.
For further details on the cookies set by Google Analytics, please refer to the Google Code website.
Email subscription services
You should not enter information on behalf of another person or about any other person. Your name and email address will be used only for delivering to you the services to which you have subscribed, for sending information about these services, for sending you password reminders and for validating security. They will not be provided to any third parties without your express consent.
If you are sharing your email address with other people, IDS cannot protect any information you provide against access by the other users of your email address, nor can IDS prevent other users of your email address changing your subscription details.
Services allowing you to publish your personal information
For services allowing you to publish your personal information on a website, you are required to provide accurate information about yourself and accept sole and full responsibility for this and for keeping the information up to date. You should not enter information on behalf of another person or about any other person.
By providing your information to us, you are giving your permission for your personal information to be made freely and publicly available via the internet to any internet user accessing the website. A user will be able to view your information in a web browser but will not be able to change your information held and displayed by the website. Your information could be passed in this way to third parties in any country worldwide. If you do not wish to allow this type of access to your information, do not enter your information.
The inclusion of any information in the service is subject to acceptance procedures. Entering your information does not result in automatic inclusion in the service. By entering your information, you are submitting information to the approval process. You will be notified by e-mail if the profile meets the inclusion criteria.
IDS reserves the right to edit each contribution (within the limits of the 1998 UK Data Protection Act). If any of the information submitted is deemed to be offensive, inflammatory or materially misleading by IDS (in its sole discretion), IDS reserves the right to refuse to publish contributions.
Password protected services
You are responsible for the safeguarding of any information, such as passwords and user IDs needed for use of your computer and/or your account with IDS, and IDS will not be responsible for any consequences of such information failing to be adequately safeguarded.
You should not enter information on behalf of another person or about any other person.
You are required to use all reasonable endeavours to ensure against unauthorised access to the service, in particular the use of user names and passwords by unauthorised individuals.
Password reminders and other information from the service will be sent to the email address you have given.
If you have any questions about these Terms and Conditions or the practices of this website, please contact us at [email protected]